Random Walk Imaging


The proprietary technologies are discussed in the listed publications.

Peer-reviewed original articles


  1. L. Ning, M. Nilsson, S. Lasič, C.-F. Westin, and Y. Rathi. Cumulant expansions for measuring water exchange using diffusion MRI. J. Chem. Phys. 148, 074109 (2018).
  2. J. P. de Almeida Martins and D. Topgaard. Multidimensional correlation of nuclear relaxation rates and diffusion tensors for model-free investigations of heterogeneous anisotropic porous materials. Sci. Rep. 8, 2488 (2018).
  3. S. Lasič, H. Lundell, D. Topgaard, and TB. Dyrby. Effects of imaging gradients in sequences with varying longitudinal storage time – Case of diffusion exchange imaging. Magn. Reson. Med. 79, 2228-2235 (2018).
  4. M. Nilsson, J. Larsson, D. Lundberg, F. Szczepankiewicz, T. Witzel, C.-F. Westin, K. Bryskhe, and D. Topgaard. Liquid crystal phantom for validation of microscopic diffusion anisotropy measurements on clinical MRI systems. Magn. Reson. Med. 79, 1817-1828 (2018).


  1. M. Palmgren, M. Hernebring, S. Eriksson, K. Elbing, C. Geijer, S. Lasič, P. Dahl, J.S. Hansen, D. Topgaard, and K. Lindkvist-Petersson. Quantification of the Intracellular Life Time of Water Molecules to Measure Transport Rates of Human Aquaglyceroporins. J. Membr. Biol. 250, 629-639 (2017).
  2. S. Eriksson, K. Elbing, O. Söderman, K. Lindkvist-Petersson, D. Topgaard, and S. Lasič. NMR quantification of diffusional exchange in cell suspensions with relaxation rate differences between intra and extracellular compartments. PLOS ONE 12, e0177273 (2017).
  3. B. Lampinen, F.  Szczepankiewicz, J. Mårtensson, D. van Westen, P. C. Sundgren, and M. Nilsson. Neurite density imaging versus imaging of microscopic anisotropy in diffusion MRI: A model comparison using spherical tensor encoding. Neuroimage, 147, 517–531 (2017)


  1. F. Szczepankiewicz, D. van Westen, E. Englund, C.-F. Westin, F. Ståhlberg, J. Lätt, P. C. Sundgren, and M. Nilsson. The link between diffusion MRI and tumor heterogeneity: Mapping cell eccentricity and density by diffusional variance decomposition (DIVIDE). Neuroimage 142, 522-532 (2016).
  2. D. Topgaard. Director orientations in lyotropic liquid crystals: Diffusion MRI mapping of the Saupe order tensor.Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 8545-8553 (2016).
  3. C.-F. Westin, H. Knutsson, O. Pasternak, F. Szczepankiewicz, E. Özarslan, D. van Westen, C. Mattisson, M. Bogren, L. O’Donnell, M. Kubicki, D. Topgaard, and M. Nilsson. Q-space trajectory imaging for multidimensional diffusion MRI of the human brain. Neuroimage 135, 345-62 (2016).
  4. S. Lasič, S. Oredsson, S. C.Partridge, L. H. Saal, D. Topgaard, M. Nilsson, and K. Bryskhe. Apparent exchange rate (AXR) for breast cancer characterization. NMR Biomed. 29, 631-639 (2016).
  5. J. P. de Almeida Martins and D. Topgaard. Two-dimensional correlation of isotropic and directional diffusion using NMR.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 087601 (2016).
  6. B. Lampinen, F. Szczepankiewicz, D. van Westen, E. Englund, P. C Sundgren, J. Lätt, F. Ståhlberg, and M. Nilsson. Optimal experimental design for filter exchange imaging: Apparent exchange rate measurements in the healthy brain and in intracranial tumors. Magn Reson Med. 77, 1104-1114 (2016).
  7. A. Ahlgren, L. Knutsson, R. Wirestam, M. Nilsson, F. Ståhlberg, D. Topgaard, and S. Lasič. Quantification of microcirculatory parameters by joint analysis of flow-compensated and non-flow-compensated intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) data. NMR Biomed. 29, 640–649 (2016).


  1. J. Sjölund, F. Szczepankiewicz, M. Nilsson, D. Topgaard, C.-F. Westin, and H. Knutsson. Constrained optimization of gradient waveforms for generalized diffusion encoding. J. Magn. Reson. 261, 157–168 (2015).
  2. S. Eriksson, S. Lasič, M. Nilsson, C.-F. Westin, and D. Topgaard. NMR diffusion encoding with axial symmetry and variable anisotropy: Distinguishing between prolate and oblate microscopic diffusion tensors with unknown orientation distribution. J. Chem. Phys. 142, 104201 (2015).
  3. F. Szczepankiewicz, S. Lasič, D. van Westen, P. C. Sundgren, E. Englund, C.-F. Westin, F. Ståhlberg, J. Lätt, D. Topgaard, and M. Nilsson. Quantification of microscopic diffusion anisotropy disentangles effects of orientation dispersion from microstructure: Applications in healthy volunteers and in brain tumors. NeuroImage 104, 241-252 (2015).
  4. D. Topgaard. Isotropic diffusion weighting using a triple-stimulated echo pulse sequence with bipolar gradient pulse pairs. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 205, 48-51 (2015).


  1. S. Lasič, F. Szczepankiewicz, S. Eriksson, M. Nilsson, and D. Topgaard. Microanisotropy imaging: quantification of microscopic diffusion anisotropy and orientational order parameter by diffusion MRI with magic-angle spinning of the q-vector. Front. Physics 2, 11 (2014).


  1. D. Topgaard. Isotropic diffusion weighting in PGSE NMR: Numerical optimization of the q-MAS PGSE sequence. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 178, 60-63 (2013).
  2. M. Nilsson, J. Lätt, D. van Westen, S. Brockstedt, S. Lasič, F. Ståhlberg, and D. Topgaard. Noninvasive mapping of water diffusional exchange in the human brain using filter-exchange imaging.
    Magn. Reson. Med. 69, 1573-1581 (2013).
  3. S. Eriksson, S. Lasič, and D. Topgaard. Isotropic diffusion weighting in PGSE NMR by magic-angle spinning of the q-vector. J. Magn. Reson. 226, 13-18 (2013).


  1. S. Lasič, M. Nilsson, J. Lätt, F. Ståhlberg, and D. Topgaard. Apparent exchange rate (AXR) mapping with diffusion MRI. Magn. Reson. Med. 66, 356-365 (2011).


  1. I. Åslund, A. Nowacka, M. Nilsson, and D. Topgaard. Filter-exchange PGSE NMR determination of cell membrane permeability. J. Magn. Reson. 200, 291-295 (2009).

Book chapters & reviews

  1. D. Topgaard. Multidimensional diffusion MRI. J. Magn. Reson. 275, 98-113 (2017).
  2. D. Topgaard. NMR methods for studying microscopic diffusion anisotropy. Diffusion NMR of Confined Systems: Fluid transport in porous solids and heterogeneous materials, 226-259 (2016), Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK.
  3. N. Shemesh, S. N. Jespersen, D. C. Alexander, Y. Cohen, I. Drobnjak, T. B. Dyrby, J. Finsterbusch, M. A. Koch, T. Kuder, F. Laun, M. Lawrenz, H. Lundell, P. P. Mitra, M. Nilsson, E. Özarslan, D. Topgaard, and C.-F. Westin. Conventions and nomenclature for double diffusion encoding (DDE) NMR and MRI. Magn. Reson. Med. 75, 82-87 (2015).
  4. C-F. Westin, F. Szczepankiewicz, O. Pasternak, E. Özarslan, D. Topgaard, H. Knutsson, and M. Nilsson. Measurement tensors in diffusion MRI: Generalizing the concept of diffusion encoding. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 8675:209–216 (2014).
  5. D. Bernin and D. Topgaard. NMR diffusion and relaxation correlation methods: New insights in heterogeneous materials. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18, 166-172 (2013).


  1. Filip Szczepankiewicz. Imaging diffusional variance by MRI: The role of tensor-valued diffusion encoding and tissue heterogeneity. Dept. of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Nov 2016.
  2. Stefanie Eriksson. Development of novel diffusion NMR methods : Preclinical applications in colloidal model systemsDept. of Physical Chemistry, Lund University, May 2016.
  3. Markus Nilsson. Biophysical modelling in diffusion MRI: The role of tissue microstructure and water exchange. Dept. of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, October 2011.
  4. Ingrid Åslund. Measuring Material Properties through Gradient Based NMR: Diffusion and Imaging. Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Lund University, September 2010.